Gastroenteritis Symptoms, Spread and Prevention
Gastroenteritis is a common illness with a variety of causes. It is often highly contagious.
Gastroenteritis is an infection and inflammation of the stomach and intestines. It can be caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, chemicals and drugs. There are many kinds of gastroenteritis, most of them contagious (Better Health Channel 2018; Healthy WA n.d.).
Symptoms typically include abdominal cramps, vomiting and diarrhoea. Gastroenteritis is a short-term illness that usually heals by itself after a few days (Better Health Channel 2018).
Causes of Gastroenteritis
There are many causes of gastroenteritis. They include:
- Viruses (e.g. norovirus, rotavirus);
- Bacteria (e.g. salmonella, Campylobacter);
- Parasites (e.g. Cryptospordium, Giardia lamblia)
- Chemicals (e.g. lead poisoning, toxins in poisonous mushrooms);
- Toxins produced by bacteria, which can contaminate food (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus); and
- Some medication can cause gastroenteritis in certain people.
(Better Health Channel 2018; Healthdirect 2019; Healthy WA n.d.)
Viruses are the most common cause. Infections caused by viruses, bacteria and parasites can be contagious (Healthdirect 2019; Better Health Channel 2018).How is Gastroenteritis Spread?
Gastroenteritis is spread through contact with vomit or faeces from an infected person. This can happen easily through:
- Person-to-person contact;
- Contaminated objects;
- Contaminated food or drink; and
- Contact with liquid particles when a person vomits.
(Health NSW 2018)Gastroenteritis Incubation Period
The amount of time between exposure and onset of symptoms depends on the pathogen a person has been infected with. It can range from one hour to several weeks (Healthy WA n.d.).
The contagious period also varies depending on what caused the gastroenteritis, and in some cases, a person can be contagious after symptoms have stopped (Mayo Clinic 2020).
Symptoms of Gastroenteritis
- Abdominal pain or cramps;
- Loss of appetite;
- Bloody stools (in some cases);
- Pus in stools (in some cases); and
- General lethargy, body aches and feeling unwell.
(Better Health Channel 2018; Healthy WA n.d.)
Symptoms generally last for 1 to 2 days, but sometimes continue for as long as 10 (Healthdirect 2019).
Gastroenteritis is not usually a serious illness but may lead to dehydration. In severe cases, an individual may require intravenous therapy to replenish lost fluids (Better Health Channel 2018).
Babies under six months old are more susceptible to dehydration and should always receive medical attention (RCH Melbourne 2018).
Older adults are also at a higher risk of dehydration and gastro outbreaks within residential care facilities can have devastating effects. For a more in-depth look at investigating and containing gastroenteritis outbreaks in aged care, read Gastroenteritis Outbreak Management In Aged Care.
Who is at Risk?
Gastroenteritis can affect anyone. However, outbreaks are more common in certain group settings. These include:
- Aged care facilities;
- Childcare centres; and
(NSW Health 2018)Treating Gastroenteritis
Most people will recover on their own without complications, but it is important to rest and drink plenty of fluids in order to stay hydrated. Rehydration fluids may be used (NSW Health 2018; QLD Health 2018).
Medication should only be used upon recommendation by a health professional (Better Health Channel 2018).
The best way to avoid contracting gastroenteritis is to wash your hands thoroughly after using the bathroom or changing nappies, and before preparing food or eating (Healthdirect 2019). Some other strategies may include:
- Using disposable paper towels to dry your hands (bacteria may survive on towels);
- Avoiding cross-contamination while preparing food;
- Keeping kitchen surfaces and equipment clean;
- Keeping cold food under 5 degrees Celsius and hot food over 60 degrees Celsius;
- Ensuring food is thoroughly cooked;
- Cleaning the toilet and bathroom (especially handles, taps and the toilet seat) regularly;
- Washing hands thoroughly after contact with a sick person or cleaning up vomit or faeces;
- Using gloves when cleaning up vomit and faeces; and
- When travelling in developing countries, drinking bottled water and avoiding certain foods (e.g. uncooked food, peeled fruits or vegetables, ice in drinks).
(Better Health Channel 2018; NSW Health 2018)
There is a rotavirus vaccination for babies under six months of age (Healthy WA n.d.).
If you have gastroenteritis, try to avoid spreading it to others by:
- Resting at home and not attending work or school until 48 hours after symptoms have resolved;
- Avoiding preparing food for others or caring for others until 48 hours after symptoms have resolved; and
- Washing hands thoroughly after using the bathroom.
(NSW Health 2018)
- The Royal Children’s Hospital, Gastroenteritis fact sheet, https://www.rch.org.au/kidsinfo/fact_sheets/Gastroenteritis_gastro/
- Smart Traveller, Travel health advice, https://www.smartraveller.gov.au/before-you-go/health
- Victoria Health, Viral gastroenteritis public health information, https://www2.health.vic.gov.au/public-health/infectious-diseases/disease-information-advice/viral-gast roenteritis-not-rotavirus
- Hand Hygiene Essentials module: https://www.ausmed.com.au/cpd/courses/hand-hygiene-essentials
- Ausmed, Gastroenteritis Outbreak Management in Aged Care, https://www.ausmed.com.au/cpd/articles/gastroenteritis-outbreak-management-in-aged-care
- Better Health Channel 2018, Gastroenteritis, Better Health Channel, viewed 11 March 2020, https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/gastroenteritis
- Healthdirect 2019, Gastroenteritis, Healthdirect, viewed 11 March 2020, https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/gastroenteritis
- Healthy WA n.d., Gastroenteritis, Healthy WA, viewed 11 March 2020, https://healthywa.wa.gov.au/Articles/F_I/Gastroenteritis
- Mayo Clinic 2020, Stomach flu: How long am I contagious?, Mayo Clinic, viewed 11 March 2020, https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/viral-gastroenteritis/expert-answers/stomach-flu/faq-20057899
- New South Wales Health 2018, Viral gastroenteritis Fact Sheet, New South Wales Health, viewed 11 March 2020, https://www.health.nsw.gov.au/Infectious/factsheets/Pages/viral-gastroenteritis.aspx
- Queensland Health 2018, Gastroenteritis, Queensland Health, viewed 11 March 2020, http://conditions.health.qld.gov.au/HealthCondition/condition/14/217/60/Gastroenteritis
- Th e Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne 2018, Gastroenteritis (gastro), The Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne, viewed 11 March 2020, https://www.rch.org.au/kidsinfo/fact_sheets/Gastroenteritis_gastro
(Answ ers: b, a, a)
Ausmed Editorial Team
Ausmed’s Editorial team is committed to providing high-quality and thoroughly researched content to our readers, free of any commercial bias or conflict of interest. All articles are developed in consultation with healthcare professionals and peer reviewed where necessary, undergoing a yearly review to ensure all healthcare information is kept up to date. See Educator Profile