Meal Service in Aged Care
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Attentive meal service combined with healthy and flavoursome food can be a high-point in the day of aged care residents.
Dining in aged care is a topic worthy of consideration–malnutrition is an ongoing health issue among aged care residents, with studies showing that malnutrition affects at least one in two residents in Australian residential aged care facilities (Hugo 2017).
It would be unwise to underestimate the effect food presentation and service has on appetite and an individual’s eagerness to participate in mealtime.
This article will provide tips for providing high-quality meal service in aged care facilities. See previous Ausmed articles on food handling and meal assistance.
Meal service relates to Standard 4 of the Aged Care Quality Standards: Services and Supports for Daily Living.
- Before the meal is served, it is important to ensure everything is correctly set up and accessible for the resident. Tables should have appropriate table cloths or mats, cloth napkins and/or clothing protectors (Bartl 2015).
- Sufficient staffing is integral to being able to offer satisfactory meal service. It is difficult to anticipate how many residents will need help and it is impossible to predict mealtime complications that could require immediate attention.
- To facilitate this, it may be worth holding two sittings for the midday meal. For example, your facility could implement separate sittings, the first sitting for residents requiring full assistance and the second sitting for residents requiring minimal assistance and spread staff between settings with a scheduled break in the middle (Bartl 2015).
Ensure that the dining environment is welcoming, open and facilitates socialisation, for example, have the dining room well-lit and pleasantly decorated.
It is important that tables and chairs are arranged in a way that permits residents to move around freely, including residents who use a wheelchair or other mobility aid (Bartl 2015).
Consider holding a ‘special service’ on occasion, for example, employing a chef to come to the facility to cook onsite. This means that at least once a month the atmosphere, the type of meal and the meal service is novel for the residents. Other ideas could include themed days or barbecues (Bartl 2015).
Mealtime should be relaxed and never rushed. This is particularly important in the case of residents who may eat slowly but wish to remain independent. It is important to notice when an independent resident becomes tired, or needs assistance or support to finish their meal (Cater Care 2018; Bartl 2015).
Attention to Detail
It’s crucial to serve food in a way that looks appealing and satisfying, and to arrange food with the same level of detail that you would serve your own meals.
It only takes a few small thoughtful additions to drastically improve the appearance of a meal. For example, adding herbs such as a sprig of parsley or basil will add colour to a dish. Offering condiment options is relatively easy to incorporate into meal service and may offer residents a sense of agency (Unilever Food Solutions 2019).
Presenting food in an appealing way can prove challenging when catering for residents who experience difficulty eating solid foods and require pureed or modified foods. Texture modified foods can look unsightly, so it is important to pay extra attention to these meals and to come up with creative ways of presenting them.
While pureed food is a solution to choking hazards and caters to people with chewing and swallowing difficulties, it may be so unrecognisable from its original source that residents might refuse to eat it. A solution to this is to reshape the pureed food with a food mould, for example, a carrot shaped mould for orange puree (Egan 2019).
There’s no need to go overboard, but consider serving meals on colourful crockery and utensils. This will:
- Instantly liven up the meal; and
- Will assist residents who are living with visual/cognitive impairments.
(Unilever Food Solutions 2019)
(Note: monochromatic cutlery and crockery is known to be confusing for people living with dementia.)
Avoid a one-size-fits-all approach to food service.
Take the time to find out what the residents prefer. Beyond catering to their dietary restrictions or preferences, familiarise yourself with cultural needs in regards to food preparation, for example if a resident requires their meal to be kosher or halal certified.
Sharing food and coming together during mealtime bears great importance in certain cultures. Visiting family and friends should be encouraged to bring and share food, but they will need to be briefed on food safety guidelines (Cater Care 2018; Bartl 2015).
There’s a good chance residents will have feedback for the way meals are served and how mealtime is carried out. It’s important to take this onboard and make sure that this feedback is relayed to those in charge of meal planning and preparation.
Take into consideration residents who may be reluctant to share their feedback openly and consider anonymous surveys or questionnaires (Cater Care 2018)
Malnutrition is rife in Australian aged care facilities. Recent media reports have shone light on the poor state of food leaving little doubt as to why residents might be reluctant to eat regular meals.
Malnutrition presents a major risk factor for sarcopenia and related issues such as increased risk of falls, arthritis, depression, fractures, pressure injuries, poor quality of life and hospitalisation (Rossi 2017; ProPortion Foods 2018).
Access to adequate food and nutrition in a form that is enjoyable is a fundamental right that should be observed for all residents in aged care facilities (ProPortion Foods 2018).
It is well understood that meal appearance, smell, flavour and a relaxed eating environment all contribute towards appetite stimulation. Consider for example, the difference careful food presentation could make for a resident in the process of adjusting to a diet only pureed food.
Care is crucial to meal service, your manner of service could greatly influence a resident’s enjoyment of mealtime and directly result in them receiving the nutrition they require to be healthy and happy
- Aged Care Quality Standards: https://www.agedcarequality.gov.au/providers/standards
- Guidance and Resources for Providers to Support the Aged Care Quality Standards: https://www.agedcarequality.gov.au.pdf
Multiple Choice Questions Q1. True or false: One in three aged care residents suffer from malnutrition.
- Q2. Which of the following is NOT listed as detail-focused method to meal service?
- Adding herbs to a meal.
- Using colourful cutlery and crockery.
- Using moulds for pureed food.
- Playing music at mealtime.
- Q3. True or false: Cultural considerations are crucial to meal service in aged care facilities.
- Bartl, R and Bunney, C 2015, ‘Best Practice Food and Nutrition Manual for Aged Care Homes Edition 2.1’, Central Coast Local Health District, viewed 2 September 2019, https://www.cclhd.health.nsw.gov.au/wp-content/uploads/BestPracticeFoodandNutritionManualforAgedCareEdition2. 1.pdf
- Blumer, C 2018, ‘Would You Eat This? The Real Food Inside Aged Care Facilities in Australia’, ABC Investigations, viewed 30 August 2019, https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-09-17/food-in-aged-care/10212880
- Cater Care 2018, Top 5 Tips to Improve the Nutritional Outcomes in Your Aged Care Facility, Cater Care, viewed 2 September 2019, https://www.catercare.com.au/top-5-tips-improve-nutritional-outcomes-aged-care-facility/
- Eg an, C 2019, ‘We Eat with Our Eyes’: Getting Food Right in Aged Care, Hello Care viewed 2 September 2019, https://hellocaremail.com.au/eat-eyes-getting-food-right-aged-care/
- Hugo, C, Isenring, E, Sinclair, D and Agarwal, E 2018, ‘What Does it Cost to Feed Aged Care Residents in Australia?’, Nutrition and Dietetics, 75, pp. 6-10
- ProPortion Foods 2018, Enhancing Nutrition and Flavour in Aged Care Food, ProPortion Foods, viewed 2 September 2019, http://www.proportionfoods.com.au/enhancing-nutrition-and-flavour-in-aged-care-food/
- Rossi, A 2017, Older People at Disproportionate Risk of Malnutrition, Aged Care Guide, viewed 2 September 2019, https://www.agedcareguide.com.au/talking-aged-care/older-people-are-often-at-dispr oportionate-risk-of-malnutrition
- The Lantern Project 2015, About the Lantern Project, The Lantern Project, viewed 2 September 2019, https://thelanternproject.com.au/about-the-lantern-project-australia/
- Unilever Food Solutions 2019, Food Plating and Meal Presentation Tips for Aged Care, viewed 2 September 2019, https://www.unileverfoodsolutions.com.au
AuthorAusmed Editorial Team
Ausmed’s Editorial team is committed to providing high-quality and thoroughly researched content to our readers, free of any commercial bias or conflict of interest. All articles are developed in consultation with healthcare professionals and peer reviewed where necessary, undergoing a yearly review to ensure all healthcare information is kept up to date. See Educator Profile